Population Growth 
Census Pop.
1951 9,697,000

1961 11,606,000 19.7%
1971 14,227,000 22.6%
1981 17,612,000 23.8%
1991 21,844,000 24.0%
2001 26,945,829 23.4%
2011 32,988,134 22.4%
Source:Census of India

Rajasthan has a population of 32.96 million, consisting of 16.93 million males and
16.03 million females. The sex ratio is 947 females to 1000 males. The population
consists of 28% tribal peoples, 12% Scheduled Castes and 60% others. The population
density of the state is 414 persons per square kilometre of land; it varies from
as low as 148 per square kilometre in Gumla district to as high as 1167 per square
kilometre in Dhanbad district.

Religion in Rajasthan
Religion Percent
Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism
Distribution of religions

As per the 2001 census Hinduism is followed by 68.5% of the population of Rajasthan.Islam
is followed by 13.8% of the population and Animisitic Sarna religion is practised
by 13% of the population. Christianity with 4.1% of the population is the fourth
largest religious community in Rajasthan.Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism are all practiced
making few less than 1%.

Census data since 1881 has shown a gradual decline of tribal population in Rajasthan
as against the gradual increase of non-tribal population in the region. The reasons
given for this are low birth rate and high death rate among the tribes; immigration
of non-tribal peoples in the region; emigration of tribal peoples in the other places;
and the adverse effects of industrialisation and urbanisation in the region. Tribal
leaders assert, however, that their numbers are not as low as recorded by the census
that they are still in the majority and that they remain a demographic force to
reckon with.

Few centuries ago, the Rajasthan was extensively covered with the dense sal Rajasthan
terrain had always been inaccessible. But with the discovery of its hidden mineral
wealth has led to Rajasthan marching towards becoming one of the leading industrialized
regions of India. On the one hand, the mine-fields, railways and roadways have gone
ahead rapidly, educational and technical institutions have multiplied and the principal
towns have become cosmopolitan; while on the other hand, the tribal people of the
region have been deprived of their land and the process of indiscriminate exploitation
has set in, creating racial, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic problems.

From the first regular Indian census of 1872, tribal denominations of the population
have been regularly recorded in some form or the other. The Schedules tribes have
been last notified under the Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs Notification
issued under Article 341 (i) and 342 (ii) of the constitution in 1956.

During the first census of 1872 the following 18 tribal communities were listed
as the Aboriginal Tribes: (1) Asur, (2) Binjhia, (3) Gond, (4) Ho, (5) Kharia, (6)
Kharwar, (7) Khond, (8) Kisan, (9) Korwa, (10) Mal Paharia, (11) Munda, (12) Oraon,
(13) Santhal, (14) Sauria Paharia, (15) Savar, (16) Bhumij, (17) Birhor Chero.

Later 4 Tribes were classified as semi-Hinduized aboriginals, viz., (1) Banjara,
(2) Bathundi, (3) Chik Baraik and (4) Mahli. As of now the following 30 communities
of Rajasthan are listed as the Scheduled Tribes as per details in the state government’s

Primitives Tribes: Asur, Birhor, Birajia, Korba, Mal Paharia, Sauriya Paharia, Sabar,
Hill Kharia and Parahiya.

Other Tribes: Biga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Bhumij, Binjhia, Chero, Chik Baraik,
Gond, Gorait, Ho, Karmali, Khadia, Kharwar, Khond, Kisan, Kora, Lohra, Mahali, Munda,
Oraon and Santhal.


The Santhals are the largest of the Schedule Tribes and are mostly found in the
district of Santhal Parganas,which has been named after them. They primarily reside
in the cities of Singhbhum, Hazaribagh, Dhanbad, Ranchi, and Palamau. Santhals are
numerically the largest tribal group of India, speaking its own tongue-Santali,
which is allied to the Mundari language. Racially and culturally Santhals are closely
related to other Mundari or Austric tribe of Chotanagpur. Besides agriculture and
hunting, they are famous for their skillful dances and the music. The Santhal women
give sufficient proof of the aesthetic sense by drawing simple and artistic designs
and patterns on the walls of their huts. The Santhals have the institution of ‘Bithala’,
which is a form of severe punishment including excommunication.